¤ GERUND ¤
= Verb + Ing that fuction as a Noun.
As a Subject
– swimming is my hobby
– reading much can broaden our knowledge
– smoking is not good for health.
As a Object of Preposision
– i am looking forward to receiving your reply soon.
(semua preposisi yang diikuti kata kerja, maka itu gerund)
– before (=preposisi) going (=gerund) to school, he has prepared everything.
As a Object of Certain Verbs
– i am afraid of going there alone
– my mother prevents me from meeting my boyfriend
– the cloud prevents me from seeing the stars.
> stop, suggest, hate, prefer, enjoy, love, finish, like, mind, deny, consider.
– thank you for having done my work.
– waiting room, sewing machine, swimming pool, smoking area, parking area, drawing book, fitting room, reading lamp.
– my hobby is eating Cake.
>> after & before kalau tidak diikuti verb/kata kerja Ing, berarti gerund.
After arrived -> gerund -> after arriving
1. The …. Who/Which is … (present participle)
2. The …. Is/For … (gerund)
caranya: masukkan ‘b’ terus ‘a’, kalau cocok disalah satunya.
Crying (‘a’) baby (‘b’)
Like swimming > menyatakan hobi
Like to swim > keinginan untuk berenang
>> apabila ada gerund, terus diikuti/ada kata “need” & “want”. Maka itu kalimat pasif
ex: the book needs revising atau the book needs to be revised.
¤ CAUSATIVE & NON CAUSATIVE ¤
S + CV + Obj + bare infinitive/present participle
infinitive (kata kerja dasar) without to.
have, get, let, make, help (punya 2 fungsi, bisa causative & nggak), find, look at, see, watch, listen to, feel, smell, hear, know, notice.
– I saw him cross the street yesterday (bentuk past tense, menyatakan kalau ia sudah menyebrang)
– I saw him crossing the street yesterday.
(menyatakan proses kalau
dia lagi menyebrang)
– I felt something creep on my book I feel something creeping on my book.
CAUSATIVE have/get to (menyuruh)
S + have + Objek + V
S + get to + Objek Orang + V1 = me-
S + get to + Benda Mati + V3 = di-
– have = mempunyai
– have to/has to = harus
– have + V3 = telah (tenses perfect)
– apabila Objek Orang diikuti to
> S + get + Objek + to + V1
– apabila Objek Benda Mati tanpa to
> S + get + BM + V3
_have & get diikuti V1
_get,want,tell,ask,order diikuti to + V1
_have + V3(had -> have) = telah mempunyai.
– I have some marbels = verb, berarti have-nya mempunyai.
– I have to study hard = verb, have to berarti harus.
– I have written to letters = aux, have + V3 berarti telah.
– I have Ari type the lettersoon = verb
1. Mr. Hasan ASKS the secretary to type the report.
-> mr. Hasan has the secretary(Objek) type (V1) the report.
=> O + V1 (mengetik), objeknya aktif!
-> mr. Hasan getS the secretary To type the report.
=> objeknya aktif!
-> mr. Hasan has the report typeD by the secretary.
=> O + V3 (diketik), objeknya pasif!
-> mr. Hasan getS the report typeD by the secretary.
=> objeknya pasif!
1. Lina will ask Andi to write a letter.
– Lina will have Andi write a letter.
– Lina will get Andi to write a letter.
– Lina will have a letter written by Andi.
– Lina will get a letter written by Andi.
2. Digie has asked Nidia to return the book to the library.
– Digie has had Nidia return the book to the library.
– Digie has got Nidia to return the book to the library.
– Digie has had the book returned to the library by Nidia.
– Digie has got the book returned to Library by Nidia.
3. Meta wants to ask the servant to make a cake.
– Meta wants to have the servant to make a cake
– Meta wants to get the servant to make a cake.
– Meta wants to have a cake made by the servant
– Meta wants to get a cake made by the servant
S + Non Causative Verb + Objek + To Infinitive
_merubah kalimat aktiv jadi pasiv masih dengan causative & non causative.
1. I saw him beating the dog yesterday.
=> I saw the dog being beaten by him yesterday.
2. I have him repair my watch
=> I have my watch repaired by him
3. I need you to solve my problem
=> I need my problem to be solved
– she listen to her mother speak with her father.
– my friend persuades me to buy a new dress in ramayana store
– mr. Anton causes indri to be angry
– i have him study english to night
– my brother hears me sing a song
pasiv => aktiv
– she has been delivering her spech for half an hour
– her spech has been being delivered by she for half an hour.