¤ Direct and Indirect Speech ¤

¤ Direct and Indirect Speech ¤

Direct speech = kutipan asli dari suatu pembicaraan tanpa ada perubahan.
Indirect speech = kalimat yang kita laporkan kepada orang lain.

PERUBAHAN TENSES DALAM DIRECT & INDIRECT

DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT SPEECH
– Simple present – Simple past
– present continous -past continous
– present perfect – past perfect
– present perfect continous – past perfect continous
– simple future – past future
– future continous – past future continous
– future perfect – past future perfect
– future perfect continous – past future perfect continous
– simple past – past perfect
– past continous – past perfect continous
– past perfect – past perfect.

Macam-Macam Direct & Indirect Speech

1. Statement (pernyataan)
= kalimat laporan dari suatu pernyataan yang mengalami beberapa perubahan.

PRONOUN
Direct ; I , you , my , our , your , we.

Indirect ; he/she , me/he/she/them/I/him/her , his/here , their/our , my/his/her , they

KETERANGAN WAKTU & TEMPAT
DIRECT INDIRECT
Now then, at the momen
Today that day
Tomorrow the day after, the following, the following day, a day after
Next the….after, the following….
Last the….before, the previous, the precending
… Ago …before, …earlier
Yesterday the day before, the precending day, the previous day
The day before yesterday two day before
Here there
This that
These those

2. Command (perintah)
= dalam bentuk perintah, kita menambahkan kata ‘to’ sebagai penghubung antara kalimat pengantar dengan kalimat yang dilaporkan.

HE [Told] [Me] to go away
[Ordered] [Her] to go away

SHE [Asked] [Him] to come here

| [Commanded] [them] to be quite
[Begged] [us] to be quite
[Suggested] [the children] to be quite.

3. Question (pertanyaan)
= jika kalimatnya ‘yes/no’ question, maka kalimat tak langsungnya harus ditambah ‘whether/if’

example
perintah ke Surya:
– Mrs. Lilik “Surya, don’t cheat from your friend!”
Mrs. Lilik told Surya not to cheat from his friend!

Ngomong sendiri
– Mrs. Sarah told us, “Study hard, please!!”
Mrs. Sarah told us to studyhard.

– Mrs. Lilik told Yuli, “Where did you go last night?”
Mrs. Lilik asked Yuli, “where she had gone the night before?”

– Mrs. Lilik told Agung, “what are you doing now?”
Mrs. Lilik asked Agung what he was doing at the moment.

– Mrs. Lilik asked Digie, “can you help me carry my box?”
Mrs. Lilik asked Digie if he could help her carry her box?

– Jessica Brooke said “I may go to the Pub and Sex Party”
That she might go to the Pub and sex party.

– Mrs. Lilik asked Very, “have you taken a bath?”
Mrs. Lilik asked Very if/whether he had taken a bath.

Trik Digol

1. Lihat soal, apakah itu WH Quest / Said”an / Yesno Quest.
2. Masing2 tu pnya ciri2
kalau WH question, rumusnya S + V3 & tanpa tanda ?.
Kalau Said”an, rumusnya that + subject..bla..bla..
Kalau YN Question, rumusnya pake if/whether.

~WH Question + He had + V3
(pada indirect & g pake tanda ?)

~ “Can you mail the letter, please!” he requested me.
He requested me to mail the letter.
(bila didepan ada/menggunakan Can, Could, Will, Would itu bukan berarti past, tapi berfungsi sebagai meminta/memerintah dengan sopan, dan pada indirectnya kata2 tersebut pasti hilang, pleasenya juga).

~”Send the message”, Mira told Nita
Mira told Nita to send the message.
(pada indirect speech selalu diikuti kata To dan V1, lalu tanpa tanda petik).

~”Don’t disturb me,” my father asked me
My father asked me to not to disturb him
(ini adalah direct command bentuk negatif Dont selalu berubah menjadi not to + V1)

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