(waktu sekarang)

S + Inf. (kata kerja dasar) + S/es

S + to be (am,is,are)

1. Habitual action/repeated action
– we go to school everyday
– father reads newspaper everymorning
2. General truth/bisa dilihat
– the sunrises in the east
– sugar is sweet and fire is hot
3. Universal statement
– the earth moves around the sun

_Kata yang biasa digunakan ;
usually, always, sometimes, everytime, everyday, often=frequently, seldom=rarely=scarcely, never, as a rule (lazimnya), now and then (kadangkala), nowday (saat ini).

– she usually helps mother to cook
– tom always goes to school by public transportation
– father expects me to studyhard everyday
– the class always begins at 7.30 am during the fasting month
– the suns shines by day, and the moon by night.

= menerangkan perbuatan yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu sekarang.

S + To Be (is,am,are) + V Ing

_Ada kata kerja yang tidak boleh di countinous kan:
1. Verbs of emotion : to like, dislike, to refuse, to want.
2. Verbs of sense : to feel, to hear, to see, to smell, to taste.
3. Verbs of thought or opinion : to understand, to believe, to expect, to forget, to know, to prefer, to realize, to think
4. Verbs of possession : to own, to belong, to owe.

_Keterangan waktu ;
now, today, this morning, soon (segera), at present, tomorrow, in a few days.

– they are studying English now
– she is reading now but she will write soon
– we are writing again in a few weeks
– i like Mr. Brown {bukan} i likeing Mr. Brown
– i feel hevy in the head
– i can thinking about the problem
– my brother is drinking a cup of coffee now!
– she is looking the flower now.

= menerangkan peristiwa yang sudah terjadi pada waktu lampau. Namun masih ada hubungannya

dengan masa sekarang..sedangkan waktu terjadinya tidak jelas diketahui.

I/We/You/They pakai Have + V3
He/She/It pakai Has + V3

a. Dipake untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan dulu & masih ada kaitan sampai sekarang & waktu sekarang.
– She has taught English since 5 years ago = ia udah ngajar bhs. Inggris selama 5 tahun
– I have lived here for three years = aku udah tinggal disini selama 3 tahun

b. Peristiwa yang t’lah terjadi
– i have seen it = aku udah melihatnya

c. Suatu perbuatan ulangan pada waktu yang tidak tertentu sebelum sekarang, dan banyak memakai kata-kata (before, already, ever, never, yet)
– have you ever been there? (pernahkah kau kesana)
– i have heard this before? (aku udah mendengar hal ini sebelumnya)
– i have already seen him? (aku telah menemuinya)
– the postman hasn’t come yet but will come soon. (pak pos itu belum datang, tapi akan datang segera)

d. Suatu perbuatan yang selesai pada waktu singkat. (at last, finally, just, recently)
– the time has at last arrived (akhirnya tiba juga waktunya)
– finally, she has started to sing (akhirnya, ia mulai menyanyi)
– i have just spoken to him (aku baru saja bicara dengannya)
– i have seen him recently (aku telah menemuinya baru2 ini).

– She has eaten at the restaurant when she was in that city for a month.
-> was, menyatakan keadaan lampau, tapi jelas waktu ia sedang makan yaitu selama satu bulan saat di kota.
#jangan pake keterangan waktu lampau dalam tenses ini#

=menyatakan perbuatan yang dimulai pada waktu lampau & masih berlangsung hingga sekarang

I/We/You/They pake Have + Been + VIng
He/She/It pake Has + Been + VIng

– we have been waiting for you since eight o’clock
– i have been staying at this place this month
– i have been living in Malang for 2 month

– he has been listening a news for 30 minute
– i have been sitting on the chair since she entered the chair
– she has been studying English for over three years

= kejadian yang terjadi dan dilakukan pada waktu lampau & diketahui pula waktu terjadinya peristiwa yang dilakukan itu. (pelajari irregular verb)

I/We/You/They + V2
He/She/It + V2

– i saw a good film last night (aku menonton film bagus itu tadi malam)
– he went to Malang last week (ia pergi ke malang minggu lalu)
– she came here yesterday (ia datang kesini kemarin)
– ellyas, the new world champion boxer crowed over his victory.

= menyatakan peristiwa yang sedang berlangsung pada waktu lampau & pada saat peristiwa yang lain terjadi.

I/He/She/It WAS + VIng
We/You/They WERE + VIng

– while i was bathing in the river, i heard a fearful cry
– when you called me, i was listening to the radio

– they were talking about sport when i meet them
– when i singing a song while my mother was cleaning a bathroom
– she was writing a letter while he was sleeping

_Perbuatan yang sedang terjadi pada waktu lampau
– he was watching television all afternoon yesterday

– Anna was studying when the phone rang
– S + was + Ving when S + V2

karena: anna was studying itu lampau dan ketika telepon berdering
: bila WHEN diganti WHILE itu nggak bisa, soalnya keadaan masa lalu diganti yang akan datang.

The telephone rang While Anna was studying
: while nya bisa diganti when
– marry was studying while her mother was cooking
– i opened the door when my brother dropped a glass.

= menerangkan suatu perbuatan yang sudah selesai dilakukan pada waktu lampau

Had + V3

1. On sunday morning, i painted my car (simple past)
2. At lunch time, my brother arrived (simple past)
namun, untuk

menggabungkan ke-2 peristiwa tersebut kita pakai PAST PERFECT
: when my brother arrived, i had painted my car.

Intinya, Past Perfect kudu digunakan apabila waktu suatu perbuatan lampau adalah lebih lampau dari pada perbuatan yang lain. Perbuatan pertama dipakai PAST PERFECT dan yang kedua pakai SIMPLE PAST.

– the train had left before i arrived
– i had copied the lesson before she come home
– she told me her name after i had asked her twice

= menyatakan perbuatan yang sudah dimulai & masih berlangsung pada waktu lampau.

Had + Been + Ving

_bentuk ini dipakai untuk menunjukkan perbuatan yang berlangsung terus pada waktu lampau.

– when i came to Surabaya in 1980, he had already been living there about 5 years
– when i finished my dinner, Peter had been playing chess
– he had been sleeping under the table, when i arrived to his home

= menyatakan suatu perbuatan

di waktu yang akan datang.

I/We + SHALL + V1
You/They/He/She/It + WILL + V1

a. Dipakai untuk menyatakan perbuatan yang akan terjadi dilakukan pada waktu akan datang :
– he will post the letter
– i shall go to Jakarta tomorrow

b. Dipakai untuk membuat suatu janji pada waktu yang akan datang :
– he will meet you by ten
– she will help you with your homework tomorrow

c. Dipakai untuk menunjukkan syarat :
– he will give a good dictionary if you go with him

d. Dipakai untuk memohon kepada orang lain agar melakukan sesuatu :
– will you please help me to get the book

e. ‘shall’ itu digunakan untuk memberikan saran :
– shall we go there right now atau shall i open the window

f. Digunakan apabila suatu kegiatan itu direncanakan/diprediksi pakai to be going to
– they are going to the party to night
– i am going to write a novel tomorrow.

= menerangkan suatu kejadian yang sedang

berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang.

SHALL/WILL + Be + Ving

dipakai untuk menunjukkan suatu perbuatan yang akan sedang terjadi
– i shall be working at nine o’clock tomorrow morning (saya akan sedang bekerja pada pukul 9)
– at this time next year, Agus well be travelling in Japan (tahun depan pada waktu ini)

= menyatakan perbuatan yang sudah dimulai pada waktu lampau & segera selesai pada waktu yang akan datang.

SHALL/WILL + Have + V3

– John Bonham will have done his homework by the end of this week
– he will have slept under the table
– by next week, i shall have read this book (pas minggu depan, aku akan sudah selesai baca).

= future perfect tetapi perbuatan itu ada kemungkinan dilanjutkan pada waktu yang akan datang.

SHALL/WILL + Have + Been + Ving

– by christmast i shall have been working at this office for 5 years
(menjelang hari natal saya

akan sudah bekerja di kantor ini selama 5 tahun-mungkin masih akan bekerja terus)
– by the end of this year we shall have been studying Germany for three years

I/We + Should + V1
You/They/He/She/It + Would + V1

a. Menyatakan perbuatan yang akan dilakukan pada waktu lampau :
– i should go to Bali the following day (aku akan pergi ke Bali hari berikutnya)
– he would buy a new car the previous day (aku akan beli mobil baru sehari sebelumnya)

b. Menyatakan perbuatan yang akan dilakukan bila syaratnya dipenuhi, pada waktu lampau
– he would come if you invited him

= menerangkan waktu yang akan datang sedang terjadi pada waktu lampau.

I/We + Should + Ving
You/They/He/She/It + would + be + Ving

Dipakai untuk menyatakan perbuatan yang akan sedang dilakukan pada waktu lampau
– i should be talking an examination at this time the following day (saya akan sedang menempuh

ujian hari berikutnya pada waktu ini)

= dipakai untuk menyatakan suatu pengandaian yang tidak mungkin terjadi karena syaratnya yang tak terpenuhi sudah pasti, namun hanya sebagai bayangan saja seandainya syaratnya terpenuhi pada waktu lampau.

I/We + Should + Have + V3
You/They/He/She/It + Would + Have + V3

– he would have graduated if he had studied hard (namun sekarang ia tak lulus karena nggak belajar)

= bentuk lampaunya future perfect continous

I/We + Should + Have + Been + Ving
You/They/He/She/It + Would + Have + Been + Ving

– by last christmas i should have been working that office for five years
– by the end of this month last semester, Siti would have been studying medicine at Bandung Technology Institute for four years.

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